This oak had rapid closure and it grew into itself.  Cracks form first and the fungi follow the cracks.

We call this pattern of response  "RAMS HORNING".






Above is a black walnut with many wounds and one serious one.


As you see here, we had different circumstances and had good closure.  Note, wound did not heal.  It still remains.  We had good closure.








Here, after a large branch was remove several year ago, large fast growing woundwood formed.  Not so good closure for the tree.







Here we have a correct pruning cut.

A round doughnut-like material made of callus first forms.






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John A. Keslick, Jr.