Pruning  "Stem"

Correct pruning.



















Correct pruning.



















Collars on young red oak.

















The closure on left is bad and the one on the right is good.













This flush cut was the cause of this and now the insects have arrived below the wound.
































Above:  Correct removal of symplastless branches.  Do not injure the base which maintains a symplast.















Above: Here you can see the difference between the symplastless branch and the branch collar that still maintains a symplast.

Source of information and most photos SHIGO 2002 CD's

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John A. Keslick, Jr.