A doughnut of callus will have differentiated to become woundwood about the cut after the next growing season if done correctly [1 to 2] (See Diagram A on left.  When too close and cutís remove the collar [3 to 4] the tree will only form callus to the sides (flush cut). When cuts have been made too close below you will have [1 to 4].  When cuts are too close above, you will have [3 to 2] (broken rings of callus).  A treatment that is harmful to trees but can be good for wildlife is to make cuts from 1 to 4.  A cavity will form fast.  (If cavities are wanted for birds or small animals.)  Remember not to leave stubs.  If callus does not form, then woundwood will not develop.

Note:  Some branches have a sunken cambium zone beneath the branch.  In this case the best you can do is a [1 to 4].   See Tulip Poplar sample below.  Arrow [A] is sunken area where callus will not form if done correctly.

Below is a Tulip Poplar sample which the the symplast of the branch died and as you can see, the tree is not forming a round doughnut due to the sunken cambial zone.  Also you may count the growth increments around the symplastless branch.   I count 3 plus the current increment (black arrows).  Also note that not only have I removed the symplastless branch, I have also severely wounded the trunk tissues. 

The targets were achieved here (round doughnuts) yet this tree still formed sprouts.  Two reasons.  One, is that the sycamore is a prolific sprouter.  Two, very well could be due to the dose - amount removed may have triggered the sprouting.  Sprouts are at the black arrows.













Suggested book on "Pruning".

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