Some words by Dr. Shigo

When flush pruning was considered correct, timing of pruning was extremely important because the cuts caused serious trunk injuries that removed the branch protection zone.  When collar cuts are made, timing is not so important.  Small mistakes that injure the collar or trunk during leaf flushing and leaf shedding can still cause injuries.

Pictures 1     (Pictures Source)

Pictures 2      (Pictures Source)

Improper Cuts and Closure     (Pictures Source)

Suggested book on "Pruning".

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